Mankind would have been better prepared to fight the coronavirus with a vaccine had it not been conducted when epidemics died in the past, a new report claims.
During the SARS outbreak between 2002 and 2004, several vaccine candidates were identified, the British Society for Immunology (BSI) said.
The Sars outbreak was also caused by a type of coronavirus, but research went out when the epidemic died, BSI said in a report released on Wednesday.
Long-term strategic investment in vaccine research is now crucial to safeguarding global health against current and emerging diseases, the society claims.
While the response of & # 39; the research community to SARS-CoV-2 (image) & # 39; impressive & # 39; the BSI says, the world should be better prepared for & # 39; the next pandemic
& # 39; The response of & # 39; e research community on COVID-19 was impressive, but it also highlighted that the world should be better prepared for & # 39; the next pandemic, whatever it may be, & # 39; read the report.
& # 39; As intensive research into coronavirus infections such as Sars and Mers had continued in & # 39; a bunch of outbreaks in our past, we might be better equipped today to approach COVID-19.
& # 39; There & # 39; s an urgent need to support and fund global opportunities in immunology, modeling, diagnostics, and vaccination against all infectious diseases – including those we do not yet know about. 39;
The Sars outbreak from 2002 to 2004 was caused by the SARS CoV-1 virus strain that was first identified in Guangdong, China in 2002.
While the outbreak killed fewer than 1,000 people, SARS-CoV-2 has taken and counted the lives of more than 217,000 people.
The & # 39; lethal ferocity & # 39; which SARS-CoV-2 – the coronavirus responsible for the disease called COVID-19 – has spread has shown scientists that it can't pay to make the same mistake again, whether in the public eye or not.
& # 39; Consistent investment in immunology and vaccines is the best way to prepare for & # 39; the next epidemic, but once there was an outbreak of headlines, funding for research often diminished, & # 39; says the report.
& # 39; It's also essential not to ignore & # 39; an impact that the pandemic will have on progress against the many other infectious diseases that still cause death and death. & # 39;
The report, Meaning & # 39; Protecting the World: Celebrating 200 Years of UK Vaccine Research, said the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 does not & # 39; complete surprise & # 39; was for science.
It also recommends that despite social distancing and lockdown efforts, protecting & # 39; the population through widespread vaccination & # 39; the only way will be to defeat the disease in the long term & # 39;
From tracking new outbreaks to developing new vaccines at & # 39; time, & # 39; we should always be on the alert for the next threat, the BSI said in its new report: & # 39; Protecting the World: Celebrating 200 Years of UK Vaccine Research & # 39;
Professor Arne Akbar, president of the & # 39; British Society for Immunology, said that the UK has spent the last 200 years on & # 39; e foreground but warned that & # 39; we cannot be satisfied & # 39 ;.
& # 39; With & # 39; our world becoming more connected, we must continue to innovate and support our world-leading institutions and researchers in their quest to develop vaccines against a wider scale of diseases, & # 39; he said.
& # 39; We certainly will in & # 39; have more outbreaks of new infectious diseases in the future.
& # 39; To us in & # 39; To place the best position to respond quickly, we must now continue to invest and fund a wide variety of vaccine research that, if the worst would happen, the UK and the world are ready to respond. & # 39;
At least 70 vaccines are in development around the world for SARS-CoV-2, according to the WHO, including to & # 39; e University of Oxford, which started human trials this week.
But the BSI report said that even after a & # 39; safe and effective vaccine has been found, producing at scale is a & # 39; very serious challenge & # 39; would be.
& # 39; Next, the challenges of scaling up manufacturing and larger clinical trials will involve hundreds or thousands of people before widespread roll-out.
& # 39; This will be no small feat – vaccines are commercially risky investments for pharmaceutical companies and manufacturing facilities are generally designed to produce one specific vaccine.
& # 39; Scaling up infrastructure to produce new vaccine will be a very serious challenge. & # 39;
While large clinical trials for a vaccine can cost millions of pounds and the chances exist that it will not be effective if unacceptable side effects cause it, it was & # 39; commercially risky & # 39 ;.
This left many promising vaccine candidates trapped in a & # 39; dead fall & # 39; between early stage testing and large-scale studies, it added.
The global health community could pull in policy levies to shift financial incentives to encourage vaccine development investments by pharma companies and their investors.
Professor Robin Shattock, of Imperial College London's Infectious Diseases department, leads a team trying to develop a coronavirus vaccine, which is set to begin clinical trials in June.
& # 39; COVID-19 has been an alarm for how unprepared we are for the speed of a pandemic, & # 39; he said.
& # 39; It's not as much a technological gap as an investment gap.
& # 39; While we acknowledge the shortcomings of our response so far, we must ensure that there is long-term investment to build and maintain the research, infrastructure, and technologies that can deliver global and equivalent vaccine capabilities.
Even after a safe and effective vaccine is found, producing it at scale would be a & # 39; very serious challenge & # 39; to be
& # 39; COVID-19 is not the last pandemic, but work needs to be done to make sure it is the last pandemic for which we were not prepared. & # 39;
Professor Shattock's vaccine contains genetic instructions that encode both the egg white spike protein – the part that probably induces an immune response – and RNA copying.
This allows the vaccine to self-replicate in cells and generate a greater protective immune response.
The COVID-19 pandemic is the first real test of this technology, and progress has been very rapid.
& # 39; We were able to go from genetic code of the virus to building a prototype vaccine and our first animal experiments within three weeks, & # 39; writes Professor Shattock in the report.
& # 39; In animals, the vaccine induced highly potent neutralizing antibodies with a single immunization. & # 39;
SARS WAS FIRST IDENTIFIED IN CHINA IN 2002
Severe acute respiratory syndrome is caused by the SARS coronavirus, known as SARS CoV.
Coronaviruses often cause infections in both humans and animals.
There have been two outbreaks, resulting in a highly contagious and potentially life-threatening form of pneumonia.
Both happened between 2002 and 2004. Since 2004, no cases of SARS have been known anywhere in the world.
The World Health Organization (WHO) continues to monitor countries in the world for any unusual disease activity.
Where did it come from?
In China in 2002. It is thought that a strain of the coronavirus is commonly found only in small mammals, allowing it to infect humans.
The SARS infection quickly spread from China to other Asian countries. There were also a small number of cases in several other countries, including four in the United Kingdom, plus a major outbreak in Toronto, Canada.
The SARS pandemic was finally brought under control in July 2003, following a policy of isolating people suspected of having the condition and monitoring of all passengers who are not airborne travel from affected countries to signs of & # 39; e infection.
During the period of infection, there were 8,098 reported cases of SARS and 775 deaths. This means that the virus killed about one in 10 people who were infected.
People over the age of 65 were especially at risk, with more than half of people dying to die. e were infectious in this age group.
In 2004, there was another smaller SARS outbreak linked to a medical laboratory in China.
It was thought to be the result of someone coming into direct contact with a sample of the SARS virus, rather than being caused by animal-to-human or human-to-human transmission.
How does it spread?
In small droplets saliva coughs or sneezes into the air by an infected person. If someone else breathes the drops, they can become infected.
SARS can also be distributed indirectly when an infected person touches surfaces, such as door handles with unwashed hands.
Anyone who does not touch the same surface may also be infected. The virus can also be spread through the viruses of an infected person.
For example, if they do not wash their hands properly after they are to the toilet, they may pass the infection on to others.
Symptoms of SARS
SARS has flu-like symptoms that usually begin two to seven days after infection. Sometimes the time between contact with the virus and the onset of symptoms (incubation period) can be up to 10 days.
The symptoms of SARS include:
- a high temperature (short)
- extreme strangulation (strangulation)
- the shivers
- muscle pain
- no sense of food
Following these symptoms, the infection will begin to affect your lungs and respiratory system (respiratory system), leading to additional symptoms such as:
- a dry cough
- an increasing lack of oxygen in the blood, which can be fatal in the most severe cases
Treatment for SARS
There is currently no cure for SARS, but research to find a vaccine is ongoing.
A person suspected of SARS should be hospitalized immediately and kept in close isolation.
Treatment is especially supportive, and can include:
- helps in breathing with a ventilator to provide oxygen
- antibiotics to treat bacteria that cause pneumonia
- antiviral drugs
- high doses of steroids to reduce swelling in the lungs
There is little scientific evidence to show that these treatments are effective. It is known that the antiviral drug ribavirin is not effective in the treatment of SARS.
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