Archaeologists have found shipwrecks in the Mediterranean full of hundreds of artifacts, including Chinese porcelain, jugs, coffee pots, peppercorns and illegal tobacco pipes.
A British expedition led by Enigma Recoveries found a cluster of 12 ships at sea, 1.2 miles below the surface of the Levantine Sea, using sophisticated robots.
The ships were recovered in old & # 39; shipping lanes & # 39; that of 300 BC. and spice and silk trade served by the Greek, Roman and Ottoman empires.
The ancient ships – including the largest ones ever found in the Med – were discovered in a muddy part of the & # 39; an eastern seabed between Cyprus and Lebanon, where remains are often difficult to find.
Chinese Ming porcelain from the colossus Ottoman merchant ship, which researchers believe was in the year 1630 in the eastern Mediterranean
The shipwreck cluster was found in the Levantine Basin to the east of the Mediterranean. Some artefacts from wrecks are held in nearby Cyprus. The shipwrecks reveal a previously unknown maritime silk and spice & # 39; road & # 39; which connects China with Persia, the Red Sea and the eastern Mediterranean. The colossal 17th-century ship, which Jingdezhen associated with China in Europe, sank on the coast of Lebanon in 1630, where it was discovered with the other shipwrecks. From Suiz, the eastern wares were transported on land to the emporium of Cairo, where they crossed the Nile to Alexandria to be sent by the Med
& # 39; It doesn't get any better than this, & # 39; told Sean Kingsley, archaeologist at the Enigma Shipwreck Project (ESP) on BBC Radio 4.
& # 39; For an archaeologist, it is the equivalent of finding a new planet.
Here's a kind of embarrassment of wonders – we've found the earliest Chinese Ming Dynasty porcelain under the Mediterranean.
& # 39; They are very difficult to find, but if you find them, they are incredibly well-preserved.
& # 39; Compared to the western Mediterranean where you & # 39; ve got these beautiful stacks of amphorae, you do not get that in & # 39; the eastern Mediterranean, because many of the wrecks are hidden under the mud. & # 39;
A Chinese porcelain court of the Ottoman colossus that sank around 1630 while sailing from Egypt towards Istanbul
An iron sword and brass shield underneath & # 39; mud on the upper left of & # 39; an image taken from an Ottoman wreck from 1650 to 1700
The wrecks reveal a previously unknown maritime silk and spice & # 39; road & # 39; which connects China with Persia, the Red Sea and the eastern Mediterranean.
The goods discovered are "remarkable cosmopolitan for pre-modern shipping of any era," Kingsley told the Guardian.
One of the wrecks is a colossal 17th-century 140-foot-long Ottoman merchant ship that was large enough to fit two normal sized ships on its deck.
The size of it corresponds to the breadth of their charges, he said, which consists of hundreds of artefacts from 14 cultures and civilizations.
This includes the earliest Chinese porcelain extracted from a Mediterranean wreck, painted jugs from Italy, 12 coffee pots and peppercorns.
It & # 39; colossus & # 39; ship was full of 12 & # 39; ibrik & # 39; copper coffee pots that were probably made in Egypt or Turkey, Kingsley told MailOnline.
& # 39; The coffee pots are Ottoman in tradition – it's likely that they were personally owned by crew members, because & # 39; each has a different shape and style, & # 39; he said.
& # 39; They could be purchased in almost any Cairo-Istanbul retail market. & # 39;
A coffee pot from the shipwreck of 1630. The Ottomans have been given credit for bringing coffee to Europe. The colossus was filled with 12 & # 39; ibrik & # 39; copper coffee pots
An enormous 13 foot anchor in & # 39; arches of & # 39; e Ottoman colossus was lost around 1630, surrounded by green-tinted storage pots
The ship, which is thought to sink in & # 39; around 1630 while sailing between Egypt and Istanbul, is a snapshot from the beginning of & # 39; a globalized world.
The charges also include glass and ceramics from Belgium, Spain, Italy, Yemen and the Persian Gulf in addition to Arabic incense.
& # 39; At 43 meters long and with a load of 1000 tons, it is one of & # 39; â & # x20AC; & # x153; The most spectacular examples of maritime technology and commerce in every ocean, & # 39; Kingsley said.
& # 39; I expect western glass and ceramics from Italy, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal were also picked up in & # 39; the mighty megapolis of Cairo, a cosmopolitan New York or London of his day. & # 39;
The Ottoman & # 39; Colossus & # 39 ;, lost around 1630, transported goods from 14 cultures and civilizations that stretched over a whopping 5,500 kilometers (9,000 km) arc from Pisa to China. These goods came via Jingdezhen in China, India south to the Persian Gulf, then up through the Red Sea through the great port of Mocha and up to Suez. There the eastern wares were transferred to the emporium of Cairo, where they celebrated the Nile to Alexandria. Loading on the 1,000 ton colossus, they were out for three days when they were on their way to Istanbul (marked in red). Other locations in white show the trade gates on its route
Shipworms caught the food through the bright orange wooden hulls on an Ottoman ship with coconuts around 1910
A semi-immersed collection of English trays of mocha ware, Italian dishes and Ottoman storage pots at a dealer that dropped by 1830
The Chinese porcelain aboard the plain 17th century ship includes 360 decorated cups, dishes and a bottle made during the Chongzhen government from 1627 to 1644, used for drinking tea.
Tea drinking trays were adapted by the Ottomans for coffee, which floated east in the 17th century, after connections dating back 100 years before.
& # 39; Through tobacco smoke and coffee drinks in Ottoman cafes, the idea of recreation and polite society – characteristics of modern culture – came to life, & # 39; said Kingsley.
& # 39; Europe may think it invented citizenship ideas, but the devastated coffee cups and pots prove that the & # 39; barbarian origin & # 39; was a trailblazer instead of a backwater.
& # 39; The first London coffeehouse opened its doors only in 1652, a century after the Levant. & # 39;
The wrecks also contained the earliest Ottoman clay tobacco that was found, which was probably illegal due to tobacco smoke regulations at the time.
Two types of amphorae of Roman wine – the classic two-handle container cup and narrow neck – on a ship lost some time between the 15 BC. and 50 AD
Other leftovers include fine English pottery, Italian glass plants, Egyptian coconuts and grain.
The remains were captured with the help of digital photography, HD video, photo mosaics and multi-trees – which use sound to map the sea floor.
& # 39; The 3D Photogrammetry Mapping of & # 39; e Ottoman colossus was a first for this technology in & # 39; the Eastern Mediterranean, & # 39; said Tim McKechnie, co-director of Enigma Recoveries.
The team used a robotic car to carefully plow the depths of seabed and find the treasures under the mud.
& # 39; These are very obvious, what we call a remote car – the hands and eyes of & # 39; an archaeologist in & # 39; deep, & # 39; we obviously can't get down there, & # 39; told Kingsley to the BBC.
The Ottoman Empire was founded in Anatolia, the location of present-day Turkey. Ottomans (pictured) custom porcelain tea drink for the coffee makers who don't spread east
& # 39; And they are very sensitive, they have underwater suction, vacuum, hoovers, that can if you want large amounts of area, or you can call the pressure to replicate what we do in shallow waters by hand kiss.
& # 39; It's spicy, slow work, takes a long time to recover – it's just two hours to commute the robot to the sea bed.
& # 39; We are on & # 39; a depth of 39 Nelson columns stacked on top of each other – scuba divers can't get there, fishing trawlers can't snap it deep. & # 39;
The material – some of which is currently stored in nearby Cyprus – was found at the end of 2015.
ESP now hopes that the findings, which are only now being made public, will be made public in a large museum.
& # 39; We want to make sure this gift to & # 39; & # 39; humanity ends in a public museum so everyone can enjoy it, & # 39; Kingsley said.
THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS TOLD TO CONTROL THE GLOBAL TRADE CENTER
The Ottoman Empire originated in what is now Turkey in the late 13th century.
At its peak, it dominated much of southeastern Europe and covered 2 million square kilometers (5.2 million square kilometers).
In the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of their power under the reign of Suleiman the Beautiful, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire.
As the south of eastern Europe defeated, so did large swathes of land in southeastern Europe, parts of central Europe, western Asia, parts of eastern Europe and the Caucasus North Africa and the Horn of Africa.
With Constantinople as the capital and control of countries around the Mediterranean, the Ottoman Empire remained at the center of interactions between the west and the east for six centuries.
The empire allied in & # 39; the early 20th century allied with Germany, in & # 39; a hope to escape the & # 39; diplomatic isolation that & # 39; s contributed to & # 39; recent territorial losses, and consequently suffered one & # 39; a side of Central Powers.
After the Allied forces defeated the Central forces in the Great War, the Turkish War of Independence saw the abolition of the Ottoman Empire in 1919-1922.
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